There is an abundance of evidence that there was significant anti-Jewish hostility in the early church. It is also evident that much of this hostility was directed at Jewish believers who continued to practice Jewish customs.
The questions for us are: What effect did these attitudes have on the doctrines and practices of the church? What effect did they have on the Christian culture that we inherited?
Following is a selection of quotes and links that are examples of the attitudes in the church during the fourth-century and a few centuries that followed.
Council of Elvira (Spain — 305 A.D. — link)
Canon 49. Landlords are not to allow Jews to bless the crops they have received from God and for which they have offered thanks. Such an action would make our blessing invalid and meaningless. Anyone who continues this practice is to be expelled completely from the church.
Canon 50. If any cleric or layperson eats with Jews, he or she shall be kept from communion as a way of correction.
An Edict of Constantine (315 A.D.)
We wish to make it know to the Jews and their elders and their patriarchs that if, after the enactment of this law, any one of them dares to attack with stones or some other manifestation of anger another who has fled their dangerous sect and attached himself to the worship of God [Christianity], he must speedily be given to flames and burn— together with all his accomplices.
Moreover, if any one of the population should join their abominable sect and attend their meetings, he will bear with them the deserved penalties.
A Convenient Hatred: The History of Antisemitism, p. 33
Constantine on the decision of the Council of Nicaea (link)
It was, in the first place, declared improper to follow the custom of the Jews in the celebration of this holy festival [Easter/Passover], because, their hands having been stained with crime, the minds of these wretched men are necessarily blinded.
Let us, then, have nothing in common with the Jews, who are our adversaries.
... it is most pious that all should unanimously agree in that course which accurate reasoning seems to demand, and which has no single point in common with the perjury of the Jews.
Council of Laodicea (363–364 A.D. — link)
Canon 29. Christians must not judaize by resting on the Sabbath, but must work on that day, rather honouring the Lord's Day; and, if they can, resting then as Christians. But if any shall be found to be judaizers, let them be anathema from Christ.
Canon 37. It is not lawful to receive portions sent from the feasts of Jews or heretics, nor to feast together with them.
Canon 38. It is not lawful to receive unleavened bread from the Jews, nor to be partakers of their impiety.
St. John Chrysostom: Adversus Judaeos (386-387 A.D. — link)
John Chrysostomos Adversus Judaeos is a series of eight homilies directed agains Jews and Jewish Christians. Following is only a very brief selection of paragraphs from the homilies. John Chrysostom established a new level of vitriol in these homilies— it is hate speech.
But do not be surprised that I called the Jews pitiable. They really are pitiable and miserable. When so many blessings from heaven came into their hands, they thrust them aside and were at great pains to reject them.
Although such beasts are unfit for work, they are fit for killing. And this is what happened to the Jews: while they were making themselves unfit for work, they grew fit for slaughter. This is why Christ said: "But as for these my enemies, who did not want me to be king over them, bring them here and slay them".
But these Jews are gathering choruses of effeminates and a great rubbish heap of harlots; they drag into the synagogue the whole theater, actors and all. For there is no difference between the theater and the synagogue.
But the Jews neither know nor dream of these things. They live for their bellies, they gape for the things of this world, their condition is not better than that of pigs or goats because of their wanton ways and excessive gluttony.
So the godlessness of the Jews and the pagans is on a par. But the Jews practice a deceit which is more dangerous. In their synagogue stands an invisible altar of deceit on which they sacrifice not sheep and calves but the souls of men.
But you dishonor him so much that you pay honor to those who slew him on the cross, that you observe with them the fellowship of the festivals, that you go to their profane places, enter their unclean doors, and share in the tables of demons. For I am persuaded to call the fasting of the Jews a table of demons because they slew God. If the Jews are acting against God, must they not be serving the demons?
Did you not hear in my previous discourse the argument which clearly proved to us that demons dwell in the very souls of the Jews and in places in which they gather?
Council of Vannes (465 A.D. — link)
Canon 12. All clergy must avoid eating with Jews, nor should anyone entertain them to a meal.
Council of Epaone (517 A.D. — link)
Canon 15. Attendance at Jewish banquets prohibited.
Council of Orleans III (538 A.D. — link)
We also prohibit all Christians from intermingling in marriage with Jews. If they should do it, whoever he will be, he shall be driven out of communion unit he effects separation. We also forbid Christians to take part in meals with Jews; if anyone should be found guilty of this, they shall undergo excommunication for a year as punishment for such insolence.
Council of Macon (581 A.D. — link)
The 14th canon imposed a curfew against Jews, banning them from the streets at all times between Maundy Thursday and Easter Sunday.